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Inzhekhim Kazan

Monographs

Major results in the area of R & D works are presented in the following monographs and textbooks (in the Russian language):

1. Laptev  A.G., Farakhov M.I., Mineev N.G. Fundamentals of calculation and modernization of heat and mass transfer units in petrochemistry. – Kazan: Kazan State Power Engineering University press, 2010. – 574 p. The monograph describes theoretical foundations of calculations for designing and modernization of industrial units destined for separation of hydrocarbon mixtures. Equations for calculation of pressure drop and heat and mass transfer characteristics are presented. New designs for contact devices and experimental results for pressure drop and mass transfer characteristics are included. Examples of modernizations of industrial distillation towers, packed absorbers and other heat and mass transfer apparatuses implemented into petrochemical plants are shown. Download
2. Laptev A.G., Farakhov M.I. Hydromechanical processes in petrochemistry and power engineering. – Kazan: Kazan University press, 2008. – 729 p. The monograph describes theoretical foundations of hydromechanical processes occurring in single-phase and multiphase systems. Fundamentals of fluid mechanics, boundary layer theory, methods of removal of disperse phase from gases and liquids are considered in detail. Designs of apparatuses (sediment tanks, filters, centrifuges, separators, flotators, mixers, etc) and methods of calculation of the apparatuses including some relevant examples are presented. Proprietary designs of separation elements and phase distributors are also included. The monograph presents mathematical models for emulsion separation in sediment tanks, determining drop entrainment on the surfaces of bubble trays, and determining velocity fields on the surfaces of bubble trays as well as in sieve-type extractors. Results of numerical modeling of processes occurring in industrial apparatuses are shown. Guidelines for selection of process instrumentation are listed. Download
3. Laptev A.G., Farakhov M.I. Separation of heterogeneous mixtures in packed apparatuses. – Kazan: Kazan State Power Engineering University press, 2006. – 342 p. The monograph describes characteristics and properties of aerosols (mists) and gaseous emissions occurring in industries. Descriptions of mechanisms and mathematical models for physical coagulation of aerosols and settling of disperse phase in gases and liquids are included. Special emphasis is given to the energy method of capture of small particles and the stochastic model. Elaborate derivation of a new method for determining separation rate of aerosols is presented. Equations for determining aerosol separation efficiency in packed apparatuses are listed. Solutions to industrial problems of disperse phase removal from gases and liquids at gas separation units of the ethylene production plant are given. The monograph presents examples of energy savings achieved due to disperse phase removal from gases at industrial units. Enclosed also are descriptions of new designs for separators and sediment tanks along with novel methods for modernization of existing separators and sediment tanks. Presented are results of numerical modeling for velocity fields in sediment tanks, and the obtained results are compared versus physical modeling results for the simulated processes. The monograph considers also tasks of removal of heavy and buoyant disperse particles from liquids in sediment tanks equiped with separation elements. Solutions to industrial problems of water removal from petroleum fuels leading to energy saving during fractionation of hydrocarbon mixtures are shown. Download
4. Laptev A.G., Mineev N.G. Separation of liquid and gaseous homogeneous mixtures in tray and packed apparatuses. – Kazan: Kazan State Power Engineering University press, 2005. – 200 p. The textbook presents general information related to separations of mixtures by distillation and absorption and describes designs of existing contact devices. Algorithms of calculation of design and operating parameters of tray and packed distillation columns as well as packed absorbers and strippers (e.g. decarbonifiers of thermal power plants) along with some sample calculations are included. The key principles used for designing mass transfer apparatuses and for achieving energy saving in mixture separation processes are described. Download
5. Farakhov M.I., Laptev A.G., Afanasiev I.P. Separation of disperse phase from liquid hydrocarbon mixtures in oil refining and energy conservation.– Kazan: Kazan State Power Engineering University press, 2005. –134 p. The monograph focuses on hydrocarbon mixtures containing disperse phase formed from oil and gas refining and its influence on operability of industrial units. Briefly described are methods for removal of water and solid substances from petroleum products. Special emphasis is given to designs of thin-layer sediment tanks and methods of calculation of thin-layer sediment tanks. Presented are results of physical and mathematical modeling of processes occurring in sediment tanks. The monograph includes exergic analysis of work of a unit destined for separation of the wide light hydrocarbon fraction and methods for increasing the unit’s efficiency resulting from disperse phase removal from hydrocarbon mixtures. Shown are examples of modernizations of industrial sediment tanks at the Surgut ZSK refinery (Surgut, Russia) leading to improvements of petroleum fuel quality and energy savings achieved at the petroleum fuel production. Download
6. Laptev A.G. Transport models and liquid extraction efficiency. – Kazan: Kazan State Power Engineering University press, 2005. – 229 p. The monograph describes mathematical modeling of mass and momentum transport in two-phase liquid-liquid systems. Laws governing fluid mechanics and heat transfer processes during liquid-liquid extraction in extraction towers are considered. Equations for calculation of mass transfer coefficients for continuous and disperse phases obtained through hydrodynamical analogy and diffusion boundary layer models are presented. Multispeed continuum model for calculation of velocity and concentration fields in extraction towers with sieve trays and in vibrating extractors with the “GIAP” packing is derived. Results of calculation of efficiency of industrial extractors and descriptions of methods for instrumentation modernizations are included. Download
7. Laptev A.G. Models of boundary layer and calculations of heat and mass transfer processes. – Kazan: Kazan University press, 2007. – 500 p. The monograph describes processes of energy, mass and momentum transfer in laminar and turbulent boundary layers within active zones of heat and mass transfer apparatuses. For mathematical modeling of the processes, different models are used (models of Prandtl, Karman, Landau-Levich, etc) as well as hydrodynamical analogy generalized toward gradient flows. Main emphasis is given to boundary layers forming at the interface separating two-phases (gas(vapor)-liquid, liquid-liquid). Presented are equations for calculation of heat and mass transfer coefficients under different conditions of interactions between phases within heat and mass transfer apparatuses. Shown are calculation examples and comparisons with experimental data. Presented also are partial-differential equation models for determining heat and mass transfer efficiency of industrial apparatuses (packed-type, tray-type, vibrational apparatuses, cooling towers, etc). Results of calculations are analyzed. Methods for increasing heat and mass transfer efficiency are proposed. Download
8. Laptev A.G., Konakhin A.M., Mineev N.G.  Theoretical fundamentals and calculation of apparatuses of separation of homogeneous mixtures. – Kazan: Kazan State Power Engineering University press, 2007. – 426 p. The textbook presents an extensive review of mixture separation processes such as distillation, absorption and adsorption and introduces designs of existing contact devices. Algorithms used for calculation of design and operating parameters of tray and packed distillation towers as well as packed absorbers and desorbers (e.g. decarbonifiers of thermal power plants) and adsorbers along with some relevant sample calculations are included. The main principles of designing mass transfer apparatuses and of achieving energy saving in mixture separation processes are described. Download
9. Alekseev D.V., Nikolaev N.A., Laptev A.G. Integrated treatment of sewer systems at industrial enterprises using the jet flotation method. – Kazan: Kazan State Technological University press, 2005. – 156 p. The monograph contains descriptions of existing methods for removal of insoluble solid and liquid suspensions from industrial effluents. Main emphasis is given to the perspective method of cleaning of effluents by flotation. Theoretical foundations of the flotation process and instrumentation used for different types of cleaning by flotation are considered in detail. Estimates of energy expenses for the flotation treatment are presented. New designs for jet flotation apparatuses and methods for calculation of the apparatuses and determining their efficiency are included. Download
10. Yasaveev Kh.N., Laptev A.G., Farakhov M.I. Modernization of technological units used for treatment of hydrocarbon mixtures. – Kazan: Kazan State Power Engineering University press, 2004. – 307 p. The monograph contains calculations and descriptions of modernizations of existing industrial units for separation and hydrocarbon processing. Descriptions of mathematical models for determining separation efficiency of hydrocarbon mixtures in tray and packed towers are presented. Special emphasis is given to solutions of problems of energy saving and increasing distillation efficiency. Complete review of designs of modern packings and trays is included. Results of experimental studies of new packings are presented. Shown are examples of modernizations of technological units at the Surgut ZSK refinery (Surgut, Russia) and of designing of a mini-cogeneration plant. Download
11. Laptev A.G., Vedgaeva I.A. Designs and calculations of industrial cooling towers.– Kazan: Kazan State Power Engineering University press, 2004. – 180 p. The monograph contains descriptions of types and designs of different coolers. Special emphasis is given to constructional features of cooling towers. Elaborate derivation of theoretical models for evaporative water cooling and methods of calculation of cooling towers are presented. To scale-up, the use of multispeed continuum model and semi-empirical diffusion model for heat, mass and momentum transfer in industrial cooling towers for determining heat transfer efficiency in non-uniform air flow distribution scenarios is described in full detail. Use of the method of coupled physical and mathematical modeling is made for this purpose. Diagnosis of water cooling in industrial cooling towers and modernizations for existing designs are presented. Download
12. Laptev A.G., Farakhov M.I., Mindubayev R.F. Removal of aerosol particles from gases by packed separators. – Kazan: Pechatnyi dvor, 2003. – 120 p. The monograph describes characteristics and properties of aerosols (mists) and gaseous emissions occurring in industries. Descriptions of mechanisms and mathematical models for physical coagulation of aerosols are included. Special emphasis is given to the energy method of capture of small particles and the stochastic model. Elaborate derivation of a new method for determining separation rate of aerosols in packed apparatuses is presented. Solution to an industrial problem of oil mist removal from ethylenic coolant at the gas separation unit of the ethylene production plant is given. New designs for packed apparatuses are included. Download
13. Laptev A.G., Mineev N.G., Malkovskiy P.A. Designing and modernization of separators for oil and gas refining. – Kazan: Pechatnyi dvor, 2002. – 307 p. The monograph describes processes of fractionation of hydrocarbon mixtures in tray and packed towers. Given are flowsheets and instrumentation for processes  occurring at fractionation. Elaborate descriptions of mathematical models and algorithms for calculation of tray distillation towers and packed absorption towers filled with different packings are included. Units for separation of hydrocarbon mixtures at the Surgut ZSK refinery (Surgut, Russia), towers for alkali cleaning of pyrogas at an ethylene production plant and distillation towers used for isoprene production are taken as indicative examples of modernizations of mass transfer apparatuses. Download
14. Dyakonov S.G., Elizarov V.I., Laptev A.G. Theoretical fundamentals and modeling of fractionation.– Kazan: Kazan University press, 1993. – 437 p. The monograph contains descriptions of the method of coupled physical and mathematical modeling for chemical engineering apparatuses used in industries. The method is based on representation of a physical process through a set of elementary phenomena possessing hierarchy of scales. Mathematical structure of the elementary phenomena is invariant with respect to both interactions between scales and scale of apparatus. Formulated is parametric interaction between phenomena; conjugation of the phenomena is carried out through variational formulation of conservation laws. The latter enables solution to the scale-up problem when designing heat and mass transfer apparatuses. Elaborate derivations of proprietary mathematical models for heat and mass transfer processes in bubble-type, vortex-type, film-type and other types of apparatuses destined for separations of liquid mixtures as well as gas (vapor) mixtures are given. Proposed models can be used for diagnostics, controlling, designing and redesigning of mass transfer apparatuses.
15. Gazizov R.A., Amirkhanov D.G., Gumerov F.M., Bilalov T.R., Gabitov F.R., Gil’mutdinov I.M., Radayev A.V., Khasanov A.A., Khairutdinov V.F., Sabirzyanov A.N., Maksudov R.N., Sagdeev A.A., Usmanov R.A., Mukhamadiev A.A. Practical guide on principles of supercritical fluid technology. – Kazan: Butlerovskoe nasledie, 2010. – 452 p. The manual contains guidelines for laboratory exercises on supercritical fluid technologies, tasks for students prepared for various sections of the course “Fundamentals of supercritical fluid technologies” as well as several appendices. The appendices contain: a computational code for solubility of substances in supercritical fluid media, a table of critical parameters of substances most widely used as supercritical fluid solvents and extractants, a list of the US patents related to supercritical fluid technologies, as well as a list of publications on supercritical fluid technologies in the timeframe between 1991 and 2002.
16. Laptev A.G., Farakhov M.I., Mineev N.G. Theoretical bases and modernization of devices of chemical technology. Increase of efficiency of processes and power savings. – Germany: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing, 2011. – 595 p. The monograph considers theoretical bases of mathematical modeling of heat and mass transfer processes for designing and modernization of industrial units destined for separation of homogeneous mixtures. Main equations for calculation of pressure drop and heat and mass transfer characteristics are given. Designs of existing devices of column-type apparatuses are presented along with methods of calculation of heat and mass transfer efficiency in the apparatuses. Results of experimental studies of pressure drop and mass transfer characteristics for the packing “Inzhekhim” are included. Examples of modernizations of industrial distillation towers, packed absorbers and other heat and mass transfer apparatuses implemented into chemical industry are shown.
17. Laptev A.G., Nikolaev N.A., Basharov M.M. Methods of intensification and modeling of heat and mass transfer processes.– Moscow: Teplotekhnik, 2011. – 288 p. The monograph describes fundamental and applied research studies aimed at determining possible improvements to existing heat and mass transfer equipment through the use of efficient methods of intensifications of transfer processes. Design characteristics and comparative analysis of modified contact devices are presented. Considered also are theoretical and semi-empirical methods of mathematical modeling of intensified heat and mass transfer that use the boundary layer theory and hydrodynamic analogy. Equations for calculation of hydraulic resistance and heat and mass transfer coefficients in single phase and two-phase environments at various conditions of fluid flow are presented. Shown is an example of solution of an industrial problem of increasing efficiency of a distillation tower for phenol recovery. Download
18. Laptev A.G. Collection of scientific papers of Engineering-Promotional Center “Inzhekhim”.– Kazan: Westfalika, 2012. – 409 p. The book is dedicated to the 20-year annivesary of EPC “Inzhekhim” and describes the most significant scientific works accomplished within the last eight years in the fields of hydrodynamics, heat and mass transfer, treatment of gases and liquids. Many of the described works are dedicated to energy saving modernizations of industrial units and increasing efficiency of various processes. The book also holds information about scientific and production activity of EPC “Inzhekhim”, lists of published papers and defended dissertations in the fields of petrochemistry and power engineering.
19. Basharov M.M., Sergeeva O.A. Design and calculation of hydrocyclones.– Kazan: Westfalika, 2012. – 92 p. The textbook holds general information related to methods of separation of inhomogeneous systems. Designs and operating principles of hydrocyclones are described in full detail. Semi-empirical mathematical models and calculation techniques used for calculation of the process of removal of disperse phase from liquids are presented along with some relevant sample calculations. Download
20. Laptev A.G., Farakhov M.I., Basharov M.M., Nikolayeva L.A., Laptedulche N.K., Shinkevich E.O., Sergeeva E.S., Demidova Yu.M., Borodai E.N., Dolgov A.N., Farakhov M.M., Saphina G.G. Energy- and resource-saving technologies and apparatuses for cleaning of fluids in petrochemistry and power engineering.– Kazan: Otechestvo, 2012. – 410 p. The book presents results of theoretical and experimental studies of cleaning and cooling of fluids at one of Russian thermal power plants and at various enterprises of Russia’s oil and gas chemical complex obtained by specialists of Kazan State Power Engineering University (Kazan, Russia) and Engineering-Promotional Center “Inzhekhim”. Various mathematical models and results of calculations of both heat and mass transfer and separation processes obtained with the aid of the models in various apparatuses and cooling towers are given. The book also describes various resource-saving technologies for recovery of slurries resulting from water treatment at thermal power plants and for electric water treatment for cogeneration plants. Some of the possibilities for integrated use of turf in power engineering are indicated. Given is an example of energy saving achieved due to removal of free water from liquid hydrocarbons. Various options for modernization of thermal deaerators are presented. Download
21. Zvereva E.R., Farakhov T.M. Energy and resource saving technologies and apparatuses of thermal power plants runing on mazut.– Moscow: Teplotekhnik, 2012. – 181 p. The monograph describes major energy saving technologies used at thermal power plants for the purpose of boosting energy consumption efficiency and improving environmental situation in the areas adjacent to thermal power plants. Descriptions of experimental methods used for investigation of physical and chemical properties of the dehydrated sludge formed during water treatment are included and the sludge’s influence on working properties of mazut of grade M 100 is discussed. Statistical analysis results from experimental and industrial testing of various fuel additives are shown. The monograph presents a schematic for dosing correct amounts of carbonate additives to mazut. The main principles for choosing regimes and design characteristics of the mixers for the purpose of formation of an even distribution of the additives inside oil products are indicated. Recommendations for modernization of the mazut-handling equipment of thermal power plants are given. Methods used for recovery of hazardous substances in emissions of thermal power plants fueled by mazut are analyzed. Choosing the right type of contact elements of gas purification absorbers and their calculation are discussed. Download
22. Basharov M.M., Lapteva E.A. Modernization of mixture separation units used in the oil and gas chemical complex.– Kazan: Otechestvo, 2013. – 297 p. The monograph introduces main principles and examples of efficiency enhancement and energy saving achieved in distillation and sorption processes. Considered units include heat technology units destined for separation of ethanolamines, units for phenol recovery from an initial mixture, units for removal of waste gas from cumene (the units contain absorbers, adsorbers, and auxiliary equipment), units for cooling pyrogas and purifying water during ethylene production. The monograph contains descriptions of a highly efficient energy saving apparatus destined for removal of disperse phase from gases. For the above heat technology systems, exergic analyses are carried out in full detail. Descriptions of the highly efficient packing “Inzhekhim” destined for modernization of mixture separation apparatuses are added. Download
23. Lapteva E.A., Farakhov T.M. Mathematical models and calculation of heat and mass transfer characteristics of apparatuses.– Kazan: Otechestvo, 2013. – 182 p. The textbook holds general information on theoretical foundations of calculation of industrial heat and mass transfer apparatuses and methods of mathematical modeling. Described are the processes of energy, mass and momentum transfer in laminar and turbulent boundary layers within active zones of heat and mass transfer apparatuses. For mathematical modeling of the processes, different models are shown (e.g. models of Prandtl, Karman, Landau-Levich, etc) along with the hydrodynamical analogy. The textbook also contains descriptions of various approaches used for designing industrial apparatuses. Examples of calculations of heat transfer coefficients in industrial apparatuses are included. Download
24. Kagan A.M., Laptev A.G., Pushnov A.S., Farakhov M.I. Contact packings of industrial heat and mass transfer apparatuses.– Kazan: Otechestvo, 2013. – 454 p. The monograph presents designs, applications and computational techniques for packed-type contact internals of industrial columns. Hydraulic and heat and mass transfer characteristics of various packings are given in detail. The monograph presents also compiled experimental data for several essential parameters of the packed layer obtained by other research groups. Mathematical models for calculations of packed columns are presented. Methods of process intensifications and improvements of designs of packing elements are described. Download
25. Lapteva E.A., Laptev A.G. Applied aspects of transport processes in apparatuses of chemical and heat-power engineering.– Kazan: Pechat-Servis-XXI vek, 2015. – 236 p. The monograph presents results of solution of some of the most important problems in mathematical modeling of transport of various substances in single-phase and two-phase media. Transport of momentum, energy and mass of components as well as of finely-dispersed phase in gases and liquids is considered. The monograph contains expressions for calculation of efficiency of processes in the bubble layers, film-type apparatuses including cooling towers, thermal deaerators, pheumatic flotators and heat exchangers with heat transer intensification elements. Examples of calculation of the processes are included together with comparisons of the results with the known experimental data. Download
26. Laptev A.G., Farakhov M.I., Mineev N.G. Fundamentals of calculation and modernization of heat and mass transfer units in petrochemistry.– Saint-Petersburg: Strata, 2015. – 576 p. The monograph describes theoretical foundations of calculations for designing and modernization of industrial units destined for separation of hydrocarbon mixtures. Equations for calculation of pressure drop and heat and mass transfer characteristics are presented. New designs for contact devices and experimental results for pressure drop and mass transfer characteristics are included. Examples of modernizations of industrial distillation towers, packed absorbers and other heat and mass transfer apparatuses implemented into petrochemical plants with the energy saving effect are shown.
27. Laptev A.G., Basharov M.M. Efficiency of heat and mass transfer and separation of heterogeneous media in apparatuses of the oil and gas chemical complex.– Kazan: Center for innovation technologies, 2016. – 344 p. In the monograph, problems of determination and increase of efficiency of heat and mass transfer processes as well as separation processes in industrial apparatuses of chemical engineering of the oil and gas chemical complex and power engineering are considered. On the basis of application of models for fluids structure, boundary layer theory and turbulent migration of particles as well as using developments in the field of hydrodynamic analogy, mathematical models and expressions for determination of efficiency of a wide class of technological processes in tray-type, packed-type, vortex-type, film-type apparatuses as well as in thin layer sediment tanks, flotators and combined gas separators are obtained. Examples of modernization of industrial apparatuses designated for removal of sulfur from gases, distillation and absorption in production of phenol, acetone and ethylene are provided. Special attention is paid to energy saving, import substitution and improvement of quality of the products.
28. Laptev A.G., Farakhov T.M., Dudarovskaya O.G. Efficiency of transfer phenomena in channels with random packed layers.– Saint-Petersburg: Strata, 2016. – 214 p. The monograph is concerned with solutions of problems on modeling of heat transfer, mass transfer and mixing in channels filled with random packings. Provided are equations for coefficients of turbulent transport, mixing, heat transfer, mass transfer and turbulent migration of finely dispersed particles. Expressions for calculating efficiency of the processes are included. Download
29. Laptev A.G., Lapteva E.A. Hydrodynamics of barbotage apparatuses. – Kazan: Center for innovative technology, 2017. – 192 p. The training and reference manual describes solutions to problems of designing contact devices in chemical engineering. Theoretical foundations of modeling transport phenomena in the turbulent regime inside apparatuses and above barbotage trays are considered. Typical models for the fluid flow structure in chemical engineering apparatuses are presented. Dependences required for calculating longitudinal mixing coefficient and turbulent viscosity inside the apparatus as well as above the trays of various designs are given. Examples of application of the method of coupled physical and mathematical modeling of the fluid flow structure in the barbotage bed are indicated. Models of dispersed phase removal from gases and liquids in barbotage apparatuses are demonstrated. Examples of calculating hydraulic characteristics of gas-liquid media are provided. Download

Brief info about the authors

Anatoliy Grigorievich Laptev. Doctor of Technical Sciences (D.Sc.), professor, chairman of department “Technology of water and fuel” of Kazan State Power Engineering University, Kazan, Russia.Author of more than 300 scientific papers including 8 textbooks, 22 monographs, 6 author’s certificates.Supervised 30 Ph.D. students and 3 D.Sc. students. Vice-director of EPC “Inzhekhim” in charge of science.The author developed and implemented into various industries more than a hundred design projects.
Nikolai Grigorievich Mineev. Chairman of laboratory of department “Technology of water and fuel” of Kazan State Power Engineering University, Kazan, Russia.Author of more than 50 scientific papers including 3 textbooks, 4 monographs, 2 author’s certificates.Vice-director of EPC “Inzhekhim” in charge of technology.The author developed and implemented into various industries more than a hundred design projects.